Category Archives: Health

Female Genital Mutilation

What is Female Genital Mutilation ?

                  Female Genital Mutilation comprises of all procedures involving partial or total removal of the female external genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs for the non-medical reasons as defined by the WHO. It is also called as Female Circumcision. It is traditionally carried out by using a blade, with or without anesthesia.

International Day of Zero Tolerance for Female Genital Mutilation

What are the procedures involved ?

                  There are four major types of FGM as identified by the WHO. These are

1. Clitoridectomy: Partial or total removal of the clitoris, which is a small sensitive and erectile part of female genitals.

2. Excision: Removing part / all of the clitoris and the inner labia.

3. Infibulation: Narrowing of the vaginal opening through the creation of a covering seal, formed by cutting and re-positioning the labia, through stitching.

4. Other harmful procedures to the female genitalia for non-medical purposes, including pricking,piercing, incising and cauterizing the genital area.

Who carries out the procedure ?

                     This procedure is usually done in the home or somewhere other than a medical setting. Often it is performed by a family member or by a local circumciser, using knives, blades, sharp hot stones that may not be sterilized before use.


What are the health risks ?

                    Experience of FGM increases the short and long term health risks to women and girls and it is unacceptable from human rights and health perspective. They are severe pain since the anesthesia is rarely used. Excessive bleeding, shock caused by pain, genital tissue swelling, infections after the use of contaminated instruments, HIV*, Death caused by infection and haemorrhage. Long term risks includes painful urination, Menstrual problems, HIV*, Obstetric complications, Psychological consequences.

HIV* – The direct connection between FGM and HIV remains unconfirmed. But the cutting of genital tissues with the same surgical instruments without sterilization could increase the risk of transmission oh HIV between girls who undergo FGM together.

Why FGM is practiced ?

                      Different communities and cultures have different reasons for practicing FGM. Social acceptability is the most common reason. Families often feel pressure to have their daughter cut so she is accepted by their community. Also other reasons may include

  1.  to ensure a woman remain a virgin until marriage.
  2. some believe that the external female genitals are unclean.
  3. although no religion accepts FGM, some consider it as a religious duty.

Where it is performed ?

                         FGM is done mostly in parts of northern and central Africa, in the southern sahara and in parts of the middle east and Asia. Worldwide as many as 140 million girls and women alive today have been cut. Three million more girls are thought to be at risk of FGM each year.

What can be done to end FGM ?

  1. Many programs use respected local women to teach other girls and women in their communities about the harmful effects of FGM.
  2. Culturally sensitive programs include the use of theater, songs, games to educate families about FGM.
  3. Passing laws against FGM : It is illegal in most countries around the world including many of the countries in which FGM is regularly practiced.

What can be done to improve the health of girls who have experienced FGM ?

                             Girls and women who have already experienced FGM, need access to clinically and culturally appropriate care from trained health care providers.

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What is Autism?

Autism is a neurodevelopment disorder which is also called as Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). A person with an ASD typically has difficulty with social and communication skills. It can also be identified by restrictive and repetitive behavior.



It has number of possible causes. Most prominent are Genetic and Environmental causes.

Genetic vulnerability
Children who have certain medical conditions like tuberous sclerosis, congenital rubella syndrome are more likely to have ASD.

Environmental Factors
Besides the genetic component, the other factor which places a major role of causing autism is environmental factors like exposure to toxins or illness during pregnancy.
Continue reading What is Autism?

Blood Donation and Compatibility – Part 3

Blood Compatibility

Everyone’s blood has a type; that is classified into the type of donor and type of receiver, according to the presence of certain markers(antigens) found on the red blood cells and the plasma. These antigens are the recognizing bodies. If a blood not acceptable to the body into which it is being transfused or accepted, the immune system regards it as a Foreign Body and reacts against it. That is why it is equally important to ensure that donors are giving compatible blood types to receivers.

A non-compatible blood may lead to blood clotting or clumping of red blood cells thus blocking the blood vessels.

Receive Blood From Donate Blood To Blood Type
 A+  A-  O+  O-  A+  AB+  A+
 O+  O-  O+  A+  B+  AB+  O+
 B+  B-  O+  O-  B+  AB+  B+
 Everyone  AB+  AB+
 A-  O-  A-  A+  AB+  AB-  A-
 O-  Everyone  O-
 B-  O-  B-  B+  AB+  AB-  B-
 AB-  A-  B-  O-  AB-  AB+  AB-

Blood Donation and Compatibility – Part 2

Blood Grouping (Types of Blood) – The ABO & RH System

Noble Laureate Karl Landsteiner was involved in the discovery of both the ABO blood group (in 1901) and RH blood group (in 1937). There are more than 20 genetically determined blood group systems known today, but the ABO and RH systems aer the most important ones used for blood transfusions.  Not all blood groups are compatible  with each other. Mixing incompatible blood groups leads to blood clumping or agglutinations, which is dangerous for individuals.

Each person’s blood is one of four major types: A, B, AB or O.  Blood types are determined by the types of antigens on the blood cells. Antigens are proteins on the surface of blood cells that can cause a response from the immune system.

What is Rh factor? The Rh factor is a type of protein on the surface of red blood cells. Most people have the Rh factor – they are Rh-positive. Those who do not have the Rh factor are Rh-negative.

How does a person get the Rh factor? The Rh factor is inherited – passed down through parents’ genes to their children.

Continue reading Blood Donation and Compatibility – Part 2

Blood Donation and Compatibility – Part 1

Today i’m going to post about the Blood Donation & related information.


  • What is blood donation?
  • Who is the eligible Blood donor?
  • What is Rh factor?
  • Blood Grouping (Types of blood)
  • Blood Compatibility
  • Benefits of donating blood

Happy to inform that i’m also a Blood Donor & each point i will provide the detail information in different post;

What is blood donation? Blood donation is when a person voluntarily has blood drawn and used for transfusions and/or made into bio pharmaceutical medications.

Who is the eligible Blood donor? You are eligible to donate blood if you are in good health, weigh at least 50 kg and are 17 years or older. You are NOT eligible to donate blood if you: Continue reading Blood Donation and Compatibility – Part 1

Types of Vitamins

Last week i thought of write about the Vitamins & Source; as a first step here i provide you the list of Vitamins available. Future will publish more details about the cause of vitamins deficiency!





Cod liver oil, sweet potatoes, carrots, leafy vegetables, and fortified foods such as breakfast cereals. Needed for good eyesight and normal functioning of the immune system.

B-1 (Thiamin)

Enriched, fortified, or whole-grain products such as bread, pasta, and cereals. Helps the body process carbohydrates and some protein.

B-2 (Riboflavin)

Milk, breads, fortified cereals, almonds, asparagus, dark meat chicken, and cooked beef. Used in many body processes, such as converting food into energy. It also participates in the metabolism of many drugs and helps in the production of red blood cells.
Continue reading Types of Vitamins

7 Days Diet Programs

During the first seven days you must drink 10 glasses of water each day.

Day One  All fruits except bananas. Your first day will consists of all fruits you want. It is suggested you consume lots of watermelon and cantaloupe


Day Two All vegetables, you are encouraged to eat until you are stuffed with all the new and cooked vegetables of your choice. There is no limit on the account or type. Avoid oil and coconut while cooking vegetables. For your complex carbohydrate have large boiled potato for breakfast.

Day Three Any mixture of fruits and vegetables of your choice, any amount, any quantity. No bananas yet and no potatoes today.

Day Four Bananas and milk. Today you will eat as many as eight bananas and drink three glasses of milk. You can also have one bowl of vegetables soup. Continue reading 7 Days Diet Programs